Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigability. It is an autoimmune disorder, in which weakness is caused by circulating antibodies that inhibit the excitatory effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on neuromuscular junctions. Muscular fatigue is often seen and MG is associated with ocular problems, and speech, swallowing, and breathing can be affected. Myasthenia Gravis is treated medically with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressants, and in selected cases, thymectomy. MG is associated with other auto-immune conditions, including thyroid disease, lupus, and diabetes. Animal model studies are ongoing and, according to the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology in 2010, a study demonstrated that hMSC (mesenchymal stem cells) treatment was therapeutically useful in autoimmune myasthenia gravis mice, and the underlying mechanism may relate with their immunomodulatory potential.

     Human research is ongoing to evaluate the effects of stem cells on auto-immune conditions.

     CELL SURGICAL NETWORK has developed a specific SVF deployment protocol that attempts to utilize the potential immune-modulatory and regenerative properties of SVF (rich in mesenchymal stem cells and growth factors) to mitigate symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis. SVF is deployed systemically and may require repeat dosing. This is done as an outpatient at the time of SVF harvesting and procurement. The entire cellular surgical procedure takes approximately three hours.

     We care about our Myasthenia Gravis patients at the Cell Surgical Network and take pride in the time we provide to our patients to deploy the best protocols to help our patients achieve their goals. By filling out Candidate Application, we will answer the questions and concerns you may have about Cell Surgical Network protocols for Myasthenia Gravis.

Haemopoietic stem cell transplantation–an evolving treatment for severe autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in rheumatology, neurology and gastroenterology.

Hematology. 2007 Jun;12(3):179-91

Authors: Kapoor S, Wilson AG, Sharrack B, Lobo A, Akil M, Sun L, Dalley CD, Snowden JA

The concept of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to treat severe autoimmune diseases has been around for several decades. Advances in the safety of HSCT have made it a clinical reality since 1995. Databases have registered around a thousand patients treated specifically for a wide range of diseases, predominantly multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Phase I/II prospective and retrospective studies have supported the potential of autologous HSCT as a treatment option in severely affected patients, with profound and prolonged clinical responses in some diseases, although procedures are generally not curative. Allogeneic HSCT appears to offer curative potential, but the potential of high toxicity has limited its use in this context. The exact role of HSCT remains to be defined, particularly in the context of other advances in the treatment of autoimmune disease. Along with other groups, the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) are overseeing several phase III trials in autologous transplantation. Given the risks of the HSCT, eligibility is restricted to patients who have severe, treatment resistant disease, in whom the prognosis is otherwise poor. This review aims to summarise the current published data in this evolving treatment for relatively rare patients with resistant or rapidly progressive disease where treatment options are otherwise limited. This cross-fertilization of knowledge between many specialties may provide increasing therapeutic opportunities in otherwise untreatable diseases. Moreover, destroying and rebuilding immune systems may provide insights into autoimmune diseases.

PMID: 17558693 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


Preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells treat myasthenia gravis in a humanized preclinical model.

JCI Insight. 2017 Apr 6;2(7):e89665. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.89665.

Sudres M, Maurer M, Robinet M, Bismuth J, Truffault F, Girard D1, Dragin N, Attia M, Fadel E, Santelmo N, Sicsic C, Brenner T, Berrih-Aknin S.


Myasthenia gravis (MG) with anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) Abs is an autoimmune disease characterized by severe defects in immune regulation and thymic inflammation. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display immunomodulatory features, we investigated whether and how in vitro-preconditioned human MSCs (cMSCs) could treat MG disease. We developed a new humanized preclinical model by subcutaneously grafting thymic MG fragments into immunodeficient NSG mice (NSG-MG model). Ninety percent of the animals displayed human anti-AChR Abs in the serum, and 50% of the animals displayed MG-like symptoms that correlated with the loss of AChR at the muscle endplates. Interestingly, each mouse experiment recapitulated the MG features of each patient. We next demonstrated that cMSCs markedly improved MG, reducing the level of anti-AChR Abs in the serum and restoring AChR expression at the muscle endplate. Resting MSCs had a smaller effect. Finally, we showed that the underlying mechanisms involved (a) the inhibition of cell proliferation, (b) the inhibition of B cell-related and costimulatory molecules, and (c) the activation of the complement regulator DAF/CD55. In conclusion, this study shows that a preconditioning step promotes the therapeutic effects of MSCs via combined mechanisms, making cMSCs a promising strategy for treating MG and potentially other autoimmune diseases.

Cell therapy for autoimmune diseases.

Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(2):206

Authors: Dazzi F, van Laar JM, Cope A, Tyndall A

Cell therapy, pioneered for the treatment of malignancies in the form of bone marrow transplantation, has subsequently been tested and successfully employed in autoimmune diseases. Autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become a curative option for conditions with very poor prognosis such as severe forms of scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, and lupus, in which targeted therapies have little or no effect. The refinement of the conditioning regimens has virtually eliminated transplant-related mortality, thus making HSCT a relatively safe choice. Although HSCT remains a nonspecific approach, the knowledge gained in this field has led to the identification of new avenues. In fact, it has become evident that the therapeutic efficacy of HSCT cannot merely be the consequence of a high-dose immuno-suppression, but rather the result of a resetting of the abnormal immune regulation underlying autoimmune conditions. The identification of professional and nonprofessional immunosuppressive cells and their biological properties is generating a huge interest for their clinical exploitation. Regulatory T cells, found abnormal in several autoimmune diseases, have been proposed as central to achieve long-term remissions. Mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow origin have more recently been shown not only to be able to differentiate into multiple tissues, but also to exert a potent antiproliferative effect that results in the inhibition of immune responses and prolonged survival of haemopoietic stem cells. All of these potential resources clearly need to be investigated at the preclinical level but support a great deal of enthusiasm for cell therapy of autoimmune diseases.

PMID: 17367542 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]